What is Software Quality?
Measurement of how close is actual software product to the expected (intended) product Customer satisfaction (to who?)
Quality Software: reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable
What is Software Quality Assurance?
Software QA is the process of monitoring and improving all activities associated with software development, from requirements gathering, design and reviews to coding, testing, and implementation.
What is Software Testing?
Software Testing is the process of analyzing the software in order to detect the differences between existing and required conditions and to evaluate the features of the software. It involves the entire software development process:
The purpose of testing is verification, validation and error detection (in order to find and fix the problems)
Is it possible to find/fix all the bugs in a software product before it goes to the customers?
Yes, it can be done by proper Test planning, bug tracking, bug reporting, test automation, and release certification, etc.
What is black/white box testing?
Black box software testing is done without access to the source code.
White box testing is done with access to the code. Bugs are reported at the source code level, not behavioral.
Describe a bug?
A mismatch between the actual behavior of a software application and its intended (expected) behavior. We learn about expected behavior from requirements, specifications, and other technical documentation.
What is the use case?
Use cases are used by Business Analysts as a format for specifying system requirements. Each use case represents a completed business operation performed by the user. From the QA prospective, we would need to execute End-To-End test to make sure the requirement is implemented.
Find more here:
What is Negative testing? Positive?
Positive testing aimed at showing software works as intended when the user does what he/she does correct actions.
Negative testing aimed at showing that software handles properly situations in which the user acts not as the user is supposed to act (invalid inputs, unreasonable selections of settings, etc.)
Which type of testing results in the highest number of bugs found?
Negative testing (versus Positive testing of the same type)
What is the software development life cycle?
The software development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.
And more – http://portnov.readyhosting.com/RU/sdlc.html
What is a Test Case?
Set of conditions and/or variables under which a tester will determine if a requirement upon an application is satisfied
What does Test Case include?
When planning for testing the test case:
Test case ID
The purpose (Title, Description) of the test case
Instruction on how to get from the application base state to a verifiable application output or expected result
When executing test cases we need two more columns:
What is a test plan?
A document that describes the objectives, scope, approach, and focus of a software testing effort.
The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it.
What does Test Plan include?
The following are some of the items that might be included in a test plan, depending on the particular project:
Write test cases for a text field?
If there are so many settings/options to choose, how to write test cases?
Beside test case & test plan, what documents are required to write?
Describe risk analysis
Risk analysis means the actions taken to avoid things going wrong on a software development project, things that might negatively impact the scope, quality, timeliness, or cost of a project. This is, of course, a shared responsibility among everyone involved in a project. However, there need to be a 'buck stops here' person who can consider the relevant tradeoffs when decisions are required, and who can ensure that everyone is handling their risk management responsibilities.
How will you write test cases for testing fields LOGIN & PASSWORD, positive and negative testing?
Testing boundary conditions? Why? How?
Boundary value analysis is a methodology for designing test cases that concentrates software testing effort on cases near the limits of valid ranges.
Boundary value analysis is a method which refines equivalence partitioning. It generates test cases that highlight errors better than equivalence partitioning. The trick is to concentrate software testing efforts at the extreme ends of the equivalence classes. At those points when input values change from valid to invalid errors are most likely to occur. As well, boundary value analysis broadens the portions of the business requirement document used to generate tests.
For example, if a valid range of quantity on hand is -9,999 through 9,999, write test cases that include:
What is the difference between a test case and a test plan?
A test plan is the most comprehensive Software Testing document that describes the objectives, scope, approach, and focus of a software testing effort
A test case is the smallest Software Testing document that describes both typical and atypical situation (set of conditions and/or variables) that may occur in the use of an application (under which a tester will determine if a requirement upon an application is satisfied).
Which documents would you refer to when creating Test Cases?
All business and technical documentation available:
What is the Business Requirements Document (BRD)?
BRD is written by Business Analysts. It details the business solution for a project including the documentation of customer needs and expectations.
The most common objectives of the BRD are:
What are Bug Report components?
What fields do you fill out in a Bug Report?
Describe to me the basic elements you put in a defect/bug report?
If you find a bug and the developer says it is as-designed, what can you do?
How do you write a bug report?
What is the most important part of a bug report?
What is the bug life cycle?
The bug should go through the life cycle to be closed. Here are the stages:
How can a tester be sure that bug was fixed?
Describe the QA Process
QA processes include:
What is Unit Testing?
The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts (units) are correct.
A unit is the smallest testable part of an application. It may be an individual function or procedure.
Unit testing is provided by developers, not testers.
What is API Testing?
This was not covered in our course, plz read about it online
Testing of an API (Application Programming Interface), which is a collection of software functions and procedures.
API testing is mostly used for testing system software, application software or libraries.
It is a white box testing method.
API testing (done by QA Team) is different from Unit testing (done by developers).
What is Performance Testing?
Performance testing is to determine how fast some aspects of a system perform under a particular workload. It can also serve to validate and verify other quality attributes of the system, such as scalability, reliability and resource usage.
What is Stress Testing?
Stress test puts an emphasis on robustness, availability, and error handling under a heavy load, rather than on what would be considered correct behavior under normal circumstances. The goal may be to ensure the software doesn't crash in conditions of insufficient computational resources (such as memory or disk space), unusually high concurrency, or denial of service attacks.
What is Regression Testing?
Partial retesting of a modified program to make sure that no errors were introduced while making changes to the code (developing new or fixing existing one)
What is an Acceptance Testing?
Acceptance testing is black-box testing performed on software prior to its delivery. Acceptance testing by the system provider is distinguished from acceptance testing by the customer (user acceptance testing - UAT).
What do you prefer: white or black box testing?
Stick to the objective stated in your resume (You will normally apply for black box testing positions)
How do you determine when you have done enough testing?
The testing process comes to the point at which additional tests will not significantly change the quality of the software. No more bugs are found in the system.
Which tools are used to write Test Cases?
What is Build?
In a programming context, a build is a version of a program. As a rule, a build is a pre-release version and as such is identified by a build number, rather than by a release number. Reiterative (repeated) builds are an important part of the development process. Throughout development, application components are collected and repeatedly compiled for testing purposes.
What is Test Strategy?
A test strategy is an outline that describes the testing portion of the software development cycle. It is created to inform project managers, testers, and developers about some key issues of the testing process.
What does Test Strategy include?
This includes the testing objective, methods of testing new functions, total time and resources required for the project, and the testing environment.
How to test a customer facing software?
With any application that we test, we are trying to see if a certain set of requirements are met by the application or not. But when it comes to a user-facing site, apart from concentrating on functionality, we also have to look into few the usability features, may be performance and security aspects also to a certain extent.
The first level of testing is – Does the site satisfy its functional requirements. Example: if it is a loan management site, we need to look at – are the new customer able to apply for a loan, are the existing customer able to access their loan info, is the interest % applied to the loan amount correct, etc.
The next level of testing is – how easy is it to use the site, do the options make a logical sense and meet the expectations of the user or not. For example, if the user has to be pass 3-4 screens to submit the basic information they are going to be annoyed, so such issues have to be addressed. Another example, after entering username and password, the user might click on the tab- which means the control should go to “Sign in” button, instead if it’s going to cancel, the user is going to be really annoyed and the experience of using the site is going to be compromised. Such issues have to be caught.
Performance testing to the complete extent might not be in scope but simple situations like, how long does the search results take to be displayed and how much time does it take for the system to retrieve a customer info at the peak hour – these are some example of the kind of things we would want to keep an eye on.
Security – for sites where there is a secure login to access the site, the minimum functionality around it has to be tested. For example, if I leave the site idle for more than 10 minutes, is it auto logging out or not. Something as basic as that should be focused on.
How to overcome the challenge of not having input documentation for testing?
IF the detailed standard documentation like BRD and FSD are unavailable, the tester will have to depend on some point of reference.
b) A previous version of the application
c) Wireframes …etc (not covered in the course, read about wireframes)
Another factor that helps immensely is to talk to the developers or the business analysts (when available) to get a confirmation on our understanding or clarifications in case of doubts.
When none of these situations work, we can just conceptualize the application based on our previous IT application experience and create the basic set of test scripts. When testing phase comes up, we can set up a portion of test cycle time and do some test case management (make the already created scripts perfect) so we have the doc for the next phases.
Inconsistent bugs – Why onsite can find it but offshore can’t and vice versa – How to handle this situation?
Every bug has to be noted and analyzed – whether it is encountered at onsite or offshore, whether repeatable or not. A real value adds to a tester’s job is when we involve ourselves in the Root Cause Analysis process for a bug rather than simply reporting it.
Some of the ways we can handle this situation are:
#1. All the onsite and offshore team members should follow a guideline that screenshots had to be taken for every error that we encounter – repeatable or not
#2. If there are logs, system files or anything like that, that might help us find any evidence of the issue- we should try to find it
#3. Despite all these steps, if we still can’t tell why and when the problem occurs- we should report it to the developer all the same – with as much information as we can.
Video/audio related testing – What does this include?
How to test an application having video or audio?
Here are the important points to consider:
Mobile Application Testing – What does it include briefly?
Mobile App Testing Important Test Scenarios:
Logs at iOS iPhone configuration utility for Android Monitor.bat can be used for debugging
What is random/monkey testing? When it is used?
Random testing is often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing, data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input, the system is tested and results are analyzed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.
What's the difference between a primary key and a unique key?
Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that the primary key doesn't allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.
What is a join and explain different types of joins?
Joins are used in queries to explain how different tables are related. Joins also let you select data from a table depending upon data from another table.
Types of joins: INNER JOINs, OUTER JOINs, CROSS JOINs. OUTER JOINs are further classified as LEFT OUTER JOINS, RIGHT OUTER JOINS and FULL OUTER JOINS.